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Buddhadāsa (Ngeaum Panich, 1906–1993), a Thai Buddhist monk and scholar, was a prolific commentator on the Pāli literature of the Theravāda school and an influential preceptor of engaged Buddhism. Ordained at the age of twenty-one, Buddhadāsa became widely known for his critical intellect, his interest in meditation, and his gifts as a teacher. He founded Suan Mōkh (Garden of Liberation), an important monastery and international center for engaged Buddhist thought and training in Thailand. In his voluminous writings, Buddhadāsa developed the ideas of dhammic socialism, spiritual politics, fellowship of restraint (sa?gamaniyama), and interfaith dialogue based on Buddhist principles of selflessness, interdependence, and nonattachment.


Jackson, Peter A. Buddhadāsa: A Buddhist Thinker for the Modern World. Bangkok, Thailand: Siam Society, 1988.

Santikaro, Bhikkhu. "Buddhadāsa Bhikkhu: Life and Society through the Natural Eyes of Voidness." In Engaged Buddhism: Buddhist Liberation Movements in Asia, ed. Christopher S. Queen and Sallie B. King. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996.

Swearer, Donald K., ed. Me and Mine: Selected Essays of Bhikkhu Buddhadāsa. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1989.

Christopher S. Queen